• 27 August 2021

Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid disease, is a common disorder. With Hypothyroidism, your thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone. The thyroid gland is located in the front lower part of neck. Hormones released by the gland travel through bloodstream and affect nearly every part of body, from heart and brain, to muscles and skin.


  • Endocrine gland
  • Location: Neck
  • Hormones: Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine(T3)
  • Functions:     
    • Controlling Metabolism
    • Controlling Breathing
    • Controlling Heart Rate
    • Controlling Nervous System
    • Controlling Weight
    • Controlling Body Temperature


  • Autoimmune Disease (Hashimoto's Thyroiditis)
  • Surgical removal of part or all of the thyroid gland thyroid nodules, thyroid cancer, or Graves’ disease
  • Medications
  • Radiation treatment during treatment of Grave’s disease
  • Congenital Hypothyroidism
  • Thyroiditis
  • Iodine deficiency
  • Damage to pituitary gland - less secretion of TSH
  • Genetic defects

What are the signs of Hyperthyroidism?

  • Fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Weight gain or increased difficulty losing weight
  • Coarse, dry hair
  • Dry, rough pale skin
  • Hair loss
  • Cold intolerance
  • Muscle cramps and frequent muscle aches
  • Constipation
  • Depression
  • Irritability
  • Memory loss
  • Abnormal menstrual cycles
  • Decreased libido

Who is at the risk of Hyperthyroidism?

  • A family history of thyroid disease or any autoimmune disease
  • Type 1 diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis, or other autoimmune disorders
  • Anti-thyroid medications (a treatment for hyperthyroidism) or have been treated with radioactive iodine (a treatment for thyroid cancer)
  • Thyroid surgery (you had your thyroid removed to treat thyroid cancer or to treat a symptomatic goiter)
  • Exposure due to radiation to your neck or upper chest area

Hypothyroidism statistics

  • Approximately 1 in 10 Indian adults suffer from Hypothyroidism
  • Hypothyroidism in pregnancy with TSH found 13.13 percent of pregnant women to be hypothyroid
  • Global prevalence is approximately 8% in women and 3% in men

Health complications caused by Hyperthyroidism

  • Goiter
  • Cretinism
  • Myxedema
  • Infertility
  • Pregnancy issues
  • Birth defects
  • Peripheral Neuropathy
  • Mental Health issues
  • Sleep apnea,
  • Digestive issues (Heartburn, constipation, and bloating)
  • Irregular periods
  • Miscarriages
  • Slow body metabolism

Diagnostic methods

  • Symptoms
  • Physical test
  • TSH test
  • T4 test

Lifestyle changes to avoid risk of Hypothyroidism


  • Avoid soy foods, cruciferous food,gluten rich food, fatty food
  • Fried food, sugary food, processed and packed food items, excess fibers.
  • Avoid caffeine and alcohol
  • Consume food rich in Iodine, Selenium, Vit.A , iron and zinc.
  • Consume protein diet


  • Weight control
  • Increase metabolism
  • Exercises
  • Avoid skipping meals
  • Take enough sleep
  • Keep yourself hydrated

Hypothyroidism care at Clinica Medica

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